TYNDALE, William

(c. 1490-1536)
William Tyndale was a translator of the English Bible, Protestant evangelical Reformer, and martyr. Sometimes known as William Huchyns, he was born near Gloucestershire, an area with a history of Lollard sympathies. He received a master of arts in philosophy at Oxford's Magdalen College and also studied languages and rhetoric. In 1522 Tyndale returned to Gloucestershire to tutor the children of Sir John Walsh and spent his spare time preaching in the surrounding villages. He may have also studied the Novum instrumentum, Desiderius Eras­mus's* recent translation of the New Testament in both Greek and Latin; this edition challenged the Vulgate, the traditional Latin version used in the Catholic church. Tyndale became convinced of the need for an English translation of the Bible so that lay people could read the Word of God for themselves.
He traveled to London, hoping to get approval from Cuthbert Tunstall, bishop of London, but was denied; instead, Humphrey Monmouth, a wealthy merchant, befriended Tyndale and financed his trip to Germany in 1524. In Cologne, Tyn-dale's first translation of the Bible was cut short by a raid on the printing shop, but a fragment survived and made its way into England. In 1526 he was able to translate the New Testament from Greek into English; after it was printed in Worms, it was smuggled into England inside bales of cloth. When church au­thorities there burned several copies, Tyndale was appalled and began to attack the church and its abuses; his polemical writings included The Parable of the Wicked Mammon, The Obedience of a Christian Man, which stressed the im­portance of access to Scripture for all, and The Practice of Prelates, a work that inspired the wrath of Henry VIII* for its conclusion that the king could not lawfully divorce Catherine of Aragon. In 1530 Tyndale translated the first five books of the Old Testament, the Pentateuch, from Hebrew into English for the first time. He also published a reply to Sir Thomas More's* Dialogue Concern­ing Heresies, an attack against Protestant Reformers, particularly Tyndale. In 1535 someone in England hired a man named Henry Phillips to falsely befriend Tyndale in Antwerp and trick him into a situation whereby he could be arrested. After his arrest, Tyndale was sent to Vilvorde, Belgium, where he was impris­oned, tried for heresy, and executed on 6 October 1536.
Tyndale's work, especially his 1534 revision, formed the basis for most suc­ceeding versions of the English Bible, including the King James Bible. He au­thored many of the most recognized phrases of the Bible, such as "In the beginning" and "Let there be light." In addition, his translation is one of the first written records of modern English.
Bibliography
D. Daniell, William Tyndale, 1994.
Jean Akers

Renaissance and Reformation 1500-1620: A Biographical Dictionary. . 2001.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • TYNDALE, WILLIAM° — (c. 1490–1536), English Bible translator and religious reformer. An Erasmian humanist, Tyndale began work on a new, vernacular Bible in 1520, but met so much opposition from his fellow churchmen that he had to seek refuge on the Continent, where… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Tyndale, William — (c. 1494 1536)    English Reformation scholar and Bible translator    William Tyndale was born in Gloucestershire, United Kingdom, probably in 1494. He won a B.A. in 1512 from Magdalen Hall (now part of Hertford College) at oxford University and… …   Encyclopedia of Protestantism

  • Tyndale, William — (c. 1494 1536)    Biblical Scholar.    Tyndale was born in Gloucestershire and he was educated at both Oxford and Cambridge Universities. He became convinced that the only way to dispel the ignorance of lay people was to translate the New… …   Who’s Who in Christianity

  • Tyndale, William — ▪ English scholar born c. 1490–94, near Gloucestershire, Eng. died Oct. 6, 1536, Vilvoorde, near Brussels, Brabant       English biblical translator, humanist, and Protestant martyr.       Tyndale was educated at the University of Oxford and… …   Universalium

  • Tyndale, William — Born in England, 1494; executed for heresy near Brussels, 1536. He made the first English translation of the Greek NT and later of the Hebrew Pentateuch. It greatly influenced the phraseology of the AV. A complete copy of the first edition of… …   Dictionary of the Bible

  • Tyndale,William — Tyn·dale also Tin·dal or Tin·dale (tĭnʹdl), William. 1494? 1536. English religious reformer and martyr whose translation of the New Testament was the basis of the King James Bible. * * * …   Universalium

  • Tyndale, William — ► (¿1494 1536) Eclesiástico inglés. Tradujo la Biblia a la lengua inglesa …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • TYNDALE, William — (1494 1536)    English BIBLE translator who was burnt at the stake after torture for his attempts to give the BIBLE to ordinary people …   Concise dictionary of Religion

  • Tyndale, William — (1484? 1536)    Translator of the Bible, belonged to a northern family which, migrating to Gloucestershire during the Wars of the Roses, adopted the alternative name of Huchyns or Hychins, which T. himself bore when at Oxf. in 1510. After… …   Short biographical dictionary of English literature

  • Tyndale — Tyndale, William …   Enciclopedia Universal

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